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During the s the newsletter became a monthly, increased in size, and began from listing all sf books published in the USA. By the circulation had topped , reaching in In it increased to 48pp an issue and switched to computer setting; it became fully desk-top published with laser typesetting from Photographic covers, usually of authors highlighted in interviews, have long been the norm. By the s Locus 74pp as of June and varying between 70pp to 86pp more recently had long been established as the trade newspaper of sf; its paid circulation has varied around 8,, between and , falling off slightly from the high of Its clear superiority over all other news magazines in the field has been confirmed by the astonishing number of Hugos 29 it has received, beginning with eight for Best Fanzine to , and a further 21 for Best Semiprozine , winning consistently for the first nine years of the latter category's existence.

The predictability of Locus 's annual Hugo, which had proved irritating to some in the sf world, proved illusory when Science Fiction Chronicle won in this category in and , and voters subsequently turned to smaller fiction semiprozines in ; however, Locus returned to win its thirtieth Hugo in Thereafter, a further rules change has excluded it from the Semiprozine category. Wholly professional in appearance, Locus excels in its news coverage with regular columns from overseas, including the UK and much of Europe, Australia, Russia, China and occasionally various Latin American countries.

Its book-review coverage is very ample, taking up a large proportion of the magazine. Brown's policy of not printing strongly adverse reviews, while understandable in view of the magazine's reliance on the book trade for advertising, is unfortunate. The policy matters less in practice than in theory, since most reviews are intelligent and well informed, although some readers find them somewhat bland overall. Nonetheless, Locus is indispensable for professionals in the sf field, and was one of the most important references used in the compilation of this encyclopedia.

Locus polls its readers annually about their favourites in different categories of sf publishing, and there is a case for arguing that the Locus Awards are more securely based across the sf readership than are the more celebrated Hugos. Though she was the only Classical Languages major to graduate in the Class of , she still thinks Duke was one of the best places to write and research her passion.

As a student, Gabi interned with the American Society of Papyrologists. As it happens, the ASP is headquartered at Duke, which is also home to countless papyrus materials in the Rubenstein Library. Choosing to spend his summer as one of the first participants in our Duke History Revisited program—a six-week immersive research experience uncovering previously under-researched or unexplored areas of Duke history—Andrew was able to delve deep into the relationship between Duke and Durham through the lens of housing and gentrification.

It gave him a sense of empowerment over his studies. Though his time at Duke has come to an end, Andrew continues his pursuit of uncovering knowledge. He is currently researching domestic labor in Hong Kong, and hopes to use the prize money to further his travels around the region. Following your passions can often take you down roads you never expected. His unique combination of degrees was a result of his desire to understand people and how they interact within the world.

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In writing it, Alex found a way to hold onto a place that may be slipping away. A mentor knows the right balance. Some might know Valerie as the President of Duke Players, the student theater group supporting new work from the Duke community, or as an actress in campus productions.

However, behind the curtain, Valerie is often responsible for the writing herself. A junior, Valerie unites her studies in English, Creative Writing, and Theater Studies to create her very own plays and even see them to production. Valerie is currently working on a screenplay. Before she graduates, she hopes to write a full-length play and produce it for an audience.

As every writer knows, it can be difficult to find the time and resources to devote yourself to your craft. Valerie hopes the prize money will give her the opportunity to spend her summer writing and exploring her passion. Chester P. Middlesworth Award Recognizing excellence of analysis, research, and writing in the use of primary sources and rare materials held by the David M.

Ole R. Holsti Prize Recognizing excellence in undergraduate research using primary sources for political science and public policy. The most enduring technologies are often the simplest, as well as the easiest to take for granted. Consider the humble book cart.

Yet for moving lots of books around, its efficient design would seem to offer little room for improvement. Its hard, uneven surface transforms a routine cruise down the hall with a cart full of books into a teeth-rattling steeplechase. This is especially problematic when the books on the move are rare, fragile, and of inestimable value.

A decibel meter recently clocked a rackety Rubenstein book cart at roughly the same volume as a lawnmower. Far be it from us to shush anybody.

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Happily, one group of students was up to the task. After visiting the Rubenstein Library and test-driving the book carts for themselves, they began isolating the key engineering problems of vibration, load displacement, and noise. Over the course of several weeks, they researched existing design solutions—including carbon fiber loop wheels, dampers, and shock absorbers—and began the long iterative process of design, trial, error, and redesign. Their new-and-improved cart had to meet strict criteria. It needed to be easy to use, capable of bearing pounds, no more than 32 inches wide, audible only to the person operating it, durable enough to last ten years, and affordable at under a thousand dollars.

Easy, right? At the end of the semester, the All-Terrain Manuscript Team unveiled their prototype. Its lightweight steel frame was mounted on a chassis with a simple suspension system and pneumatic tires, which could traverse bumpy stone and elevator-floor transitions with cushiony ease. Protective railings around the shelf area would keep priceless tomes from falling off, while a thin layer of acid-free, conservation-quality foam provided additional grip and padding. Every design requirement was neatly checked off the list. The cart made its relatively noiseless debut to resounding appreciation by Rubenstein Library staff.

Indeed, they were surprised at the level of public access allowed. Indeed they can. The Italian Renaissance naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi was known for his systematic observations of animals, plants, and minerals. During his tenure as a professor of logic and philosophy at the University of Bologna, he was arrested for heresy, appointed by Pope Gregory XIII as inspector of drugs and pharmacies, and authored several published encyclopedias.

The rest of his written work remained unpublished until after his death. One of these volumes, the Monstrorum Historia History of Monsters , published in , was recently acquired as part of the History of Medicine Collections in the Rubenstein Library. Depicting legendary creatures, unusual congenital abnormalities, and lots of hybrid combinations, it would be easy to confuse it as a work of mythological, rather than medical, history.

Today, the work stands as an important piece of medical history as it includes some of the earliest documentation of rare medical conditions. While some parts of the book are more akin to fairytale than to fact, Aldrovandi assiduously cataloged and preserved the rare, marvelous, and imaginative prodigies of his time. Can you spot the scientific from the supernatural? Even if you spent all your time at Duke in the library, you would probably never meet Emmanuel Senga.

And even if you did, it would probably make no difference to you whether he was a Hutu or a Tutsi. But twenty-four years ago, when the killings started, that was the one thing about Emmanuel—and every other Rwandan like him—that made the difference between life and death. He has worked there since , the year before he officially became an American citizen.

Emmanuel and his family came to the U. Considering how many times he has narrowly escaped death, it seems remarkable he is here at all, safe and sound, scanning books, retrieving books, and putting them back where they belong. His story is a powerful reminder that ours is a nation of immigrants, however the political winds may blow, and that many of the people who keep a globally minded university like Duke running come from all over the globe themselves.

He was trained as a teacher of languages at the National University of Rwanda. For ten years, he taught French, Linguistics, and Kinyarwanda at the Minor Seminary of Ndera-Kigali, helping to prepare young men who felt called to the priesthood. Seminaries were the top private schools in the country, and their teachers were selected accordingly. For many Roman Catholic Hutus like Emmanuel, an appointment to the faculty of a seminary was a good and secure job. His wife, Jeanne, was a nurse. A Tutsi, she was born in Rwanda but raised in neighboring Tanzania.

They were married in In , Emmanuel and Jeanne welcomed a son, Didier. Three years later came a daughter, Anaise. A young family in the prime of life, residing in a vibrant capital city—life could be worse. The resulting crash killed everyone onboard. Emmanuel was watching soccer on TV at the seminary when he heard the explosion. It was soon followed by the sound of gunshots.

Radio broadcasts fanned the flames by encouraging Hutu civilians to kill their Tutsi neighbors. Meanwhile, the international community stood by and watched. For ethnically mixed Hutu-Tutsi families, like Emmanuel and Jeanne, their only hope was to go into hiding. The Rwandan genocide is said to have lasted approximately one hundred days, from April 6 to mid-July During that time, an estimated , civilians were killed, mostly Tutsis but also moderate Hutus. The exact death toll may never be known.

Many of the victims died in extremely brutal ways, often at the hands of people they knew.

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It is impossible to convey, in this brief space, what Emmanuel, Jeanne, and their children went through during that nightmarish time period. But here, in extremely abbreviated form, are a few things that happened to them, starting in the month of April. From the surrounding area people started pouring in, seeking a place of safety. But nowhere was truly safe. Within a few days the militias appeared and started separating Hutus from Tutsis.

In Rwanda, your ethnicity is not something you could easily hide. And anyway, it was a small world. People knew each other and could be made to talk. But their home had been destroyed, so they hid in the house of a wealthy friend near the seminary. In addition to their own two children, aged five and two, Emmanuel and Jeanne took in the ten-year-old daughter of a colleague when the rest of her family were killed. Within days, the militias found out where they were hiding and demanded payment in exchange for not killing Jeanne.

Emmanuel complied, but then the militias came back, wanting more money. Then they came back again. Emmanuel and Jeanne decided she should flee and try to find a safer place to hide, bypassing the roadblocks where Tutsis were being killed on the spot. He stayed behind with the children, the youngest of whom, Anaise, was still breastfeeding.

Weeks went by with no word from his wife. On April 26, an acquaintance gave Emmanuel some bad news. She was dead. In May, Emmanuel decided to leave Kigali. A nephew in the military helped him and the three children get a ride to the town of Gitarama. A trip that normally takes one hour stretched into six, as they crept through roadblock after terrifying roadblock. In Gitarama, no one wanted to take them in.

Emmanuel and the children were obliged to live in primitive conditions, with no electricity, no running water, no money, and entirely dependent on the charity of others. They began killing Hutus and their relatives, as well as anyone who sheltered them. Eventually they found Emmanuel, who was certain his time was up. But then a strange thing happened. When he told the soldiers who came for him that his wife was dead, one of them took pity on him. Turns out he was also from Tanzania, like Jeanne. The Tanzanian took Emmanuel aside and told him they were going to concoct a story about Jeanne being his long-lost sister.

When the other men heard the story, they believed it and stood down. Then they all drank beers together, Emmanuel and his would-be killers. On July 4, the RPF seized Kigali and established military control over much of the rest of the country. Millions of Hutus fled to Congo and other neighboring countries. By mid-July, a transitional government was sworn in. Three months after it had started, the genocide had come to an end. Desperate for money and work, and knowing there would be a need for educated men and women in the new administration in Kigali, Emmanuel made his way there and began making inquiries.

Over the course of a few days, two separate sources told him that Jeanne was actually alive. She had made it to the north of the country, where she had waited out the violence in an RPF orphanage, caring for Tutsi orphans of the genocide. Around the same time, word reached Jeanne that Emmanuel and the children were still alive in Gitarama. Immediately she set out to find them.

On August 4, , Emmanuel, Jeanne, and their family were finally reunited, though their country remained profoundly torn apart. The years following the genocide were not easy, but a degree of normalcy returned. Jeanne went back to work as a nurse for an ambulance service. Thanks to some contacts from his time at the seminary, Emmanuel got a job as the director of a Catholic relief agency. In , Emmanuel was approached by a military officer who told him that the government needed educated men like himself. So many had been killed or fled the country during the violence.

Later that year Emmanuel found himself appointed to a surprisingly high-level government post: Director of Protocol for the Rwandan Parliament. Suddenly, this former language instructor was in charge of planning, directing, and supervising a wide range of official government ceremonies and events, as well as serving as a diplomatic liaison with representatives of other states and countries. Having experienced so recently what it means to be powerless, Emmanuel unexpectedly found himself at the center of official power.

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But it was a center that could not hold. The events of weighed heavily on the country, which was becoming a de facto one-party state. Since he was elected President of Rwanda in , Paul Kagame has clung to power and overseen changes to the constitution that could allow him to remain in office until Power struggles and ethnic strife always loomed, undermining real progress. The spotlight was a perilous place to be. But it was ultimately his position as a government insider that helped Emmanuel and his family get out. Their chance arrived in July Jeanne was invited on a whirlwind tour of the United States as part of an official program for African women who were considered opinion leaders in their fields.

The six women selected were expected to bring back what they learned to their home countries. But before she left, Jeanne and Emmanuel secretly agreed: she would not be returning to Rwanda. At the end of the five-state tour, Jeanne declared asylum at the U. Because of his high position in the Rwandan government, Emmanuel was a familiar face to foreign diplomats and their embassies around Kigali. It would not be seen as strange for him to spend an hour or two at the American embassy, under the pretense of some official business.

Meanwhile he was secretly making his way through the official channels of the asylum process. Getting out of the country was another matter altogether. In the end, he was arrested—twice. First at the Ugandan border, where he was detained in a military camp, interrogated, and stripped of his passport to prevent him from leaving the country. Eventually released, he crossed the border illegally, made his way to Entebbe, and caught a flight out—only to be arrested again by Ethiopian authorities during a layover in Addis Ababa.

During a moment of commotion when the airport guards were distracted, Emmanuel and his son and daughter rushed onto their plane just moments before it took off. Fast-forward to today. The Sengas have been living in the U. Anaise, now twenty-six, attended East Carolina University briefly and now holds down multiple jobs. As for the ten-year-old girl Emmanuel and Jeanne rescued in , she is now thirty-four, married with two children of her own, and residing in Canada. For a long time, Emmanuel had hoped to return to teaching.

But the Great Recession intervened. It was a hard time to find teaching jobs, even if you were a natural-born citizen and a native English-speaker. He was neither. Still, unexpected opportunities presented themselves. Steve arranged a part-time job for him at the press, doing whatever odd jobs needed to be done. I have a mortgage, I can feed my family, and I am not far from retirement. I am what I am now because of Duke. I instantly felt like this is the kind of person I want working in our department.

Since his hiring, he has been like family to everyone here. After learning about the things he and his family endured in Rwanda, I am amazed at how he is so happy and always smiling. Emmanuel is a hard and dependable worker, a loving family man, and most of all a friend to everyone he meets. We are fortunate to have him. Although he can never return to Rwanda, Emmanuel remains deeply involved in the affairs of his home country. For the past four years, he has edited and produced an online magazine and a weekly radio show dedicated to Rwandan politics.

Every Sunday night, he hosts conversations with experts and commentators on Rwandan affairs. The show has thousands of regular listeners who call in, including many back home in Rwanda and fellow expatriates like Emmanuel scattered around the globe. He is proud of the show, which offers a counterpoint to official Rwandan news coverage and has had an effect on national conversations back home.

Asked if he ever has mixed feelings about living in America, a country that refused to intervene during the Rwandan genocide while it was happening, Emmanuel is demure. He has much the same outlook on the present state of American politics and the anti-immigrant rhetoric that often dominates the news. I am an American, but I also remain a Rwandan. Every year, Duke hosts thousands of foreign nationals who come here to work, teach, or do research. Like other institutions across the country, Duke has recently and publicly reaffirmed its commitment to the open exchange of students, scholars, and ideas from all over the world.

That commitment lies at the heart of the twenty-first century research university. From a human resources perspective, that diversity is inarguably a strength. A Duke education is the collective work of many instructive individuals, though you may only ever get to meet a few of them. About the magazine Previous Issues.


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The Locus collection includes some 16, rare and noteworthy monuments of science fiction and fantasy, many in their original dust jackets. Fox with her mother, Rosalie Figge, at Duke when Fox was an undergraduate. Fox at the American Dance Festival in Rendering of the renovated and expanded Lilly Library, including a planned new entrance on the west side of the building. More than 1, first-year students make East Campus their home every year and rely on Lilly Library for their academic success.

The library under construction in The Trinity College seal over the entry door of Lilly Library. Anderson was the first Trinity alum casualty of the war and the first North Carolinian to receive the Distinguished Service Cross posthumously. Photographs courtesy of Mr.